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Section I Use of English


Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C], or [D] on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

Even if families don’t sit down to eat together as frequently as before, millions of Britons will nonetheless have got a share this weekend of one of that nation’s great traditions: the Sunday roast. 1 a cold winter’s day, few culinary pleasures can 2 it. Yet as we report now. The food police are determined our health. That this 3 should be rendered yet another quality pleasure 4 to damage our health.

The Food Standards Authority (FSA) has 5 a public worming about the risks of a compound called acrylamide that forms in some foods cooked 6 high temperatures. This means that people should 7 crisping their roast potatoes, reject thin—crust pizzas and only 8 toast their bread. But where is the evidence to support such alarmist advice? 9 studies have shown that acrylamide can cause neurological damage in mice, there is no 10 evidence that it causes cancer in humans.

Scientists say the compound is 11 to cause cancer but have no hard scientific proof 12 the precautionary principle it could be argued that it is 13 to follow the FSA advice. 14, it was rumoured that smoking caused cancer for years before the evidence was found to prove a 15.

Doubtless a piece of boiled beef can always be 16 up on Sunday alongside some steamed vegetables, without the Yorkshire pudding and no wine. But would life be worth living? 17, the FSA says it is not telling people to cut out roast foods 18, but reduce their lifetime intake. However its 19 risks coming a cross as being pushy and overprotective. Constant health scares just 20 with one listening.

1. [A] In [B] Towards [C] On [D] Till 答案:C

2. [A] match [B] express [C] satisfy [D] influence 答案:A

3. [A] patience [B] enjoyment [C] surprise [D] concern 答案:B

4 .[A] intensified [B] privileged [C] compelled [D] guaranteed 答案:A

5. [A] issued [B] received [C] compelled [D] guaranteed 答案:A

6. [A] under [B] at [C] for [D] by 答案:B

7. [A] forget [B] regret [C] finish [D] avoid 答案:D

8. [A] partially [B] regularly [C] easily [D] initially 答案:C

9. [A] Unless [B] Since [C] If [D] While 答案:D

10. [A] secondary [B] external [C] conclusive [D] negative 答案:C

11. [A] insufficient [B] bound [C] likely [D] slow 答案:B

12. [A] On the basis of [B] At the cost of [C] In addition to [D] In contrast to 答案:C

13. [A] interesting [B] advisable [C] urgent [D] fortunate 答案:B

14. [A] As usual [B] In particular [C] By definition [D] After all 答案:D

15. [A] resemblance [B] combination [C] connection [D] pattern 答案:C

16. [A] made [B] served [C] saved [D] used 答案:B

17. [A] To be fair [B] For instance [C] To be brief [D] In general 答案:A

18. [A] reluctantly [B] entirely [C] gradually [D] carefully 答案:B

19. [A] promise [B] experience [C] campaign [D] competition 答案:A

20. [A] follow up [B] pick up [C] open up [D] end up . 答案:D

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A


Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A], [B], [C], or [D]. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

Text 1

A group of labour MPs, among them Yvette Cooper, are bringing in the new year with a call to institute a UK “town of culture” award. The proposal is that it should sit alongside the existing city of culture title, which was held by Hull in 2017 and has been awarded to Coventry for zoz1. Cooper and her colleagues argue that the success of the crown for Hull, where it brought in £220m of investment and an avalanche of arts, out not to be confined to cities. Britain’ town, it is true are not prevented from applying, but they generally lack the resources to put together a bit to beat their bigger competitions. A town of culture award could, it is argued, become an annual event, attracting funding and creating jobs.

Some might see the proposal as a boo by prize for the fact that Britain is no longer be able to apply for the much more prestigious title of European capital of culture, a sough-after award bagged by Glasgow in 1990 and Liverpool in 2008. A cynic might speculate that the UK is on the verge of disappearing into an endless fever of self-celebration in its desperation to reinvent itself for the post-Brexit world: after town of culture, who knows that will follow—village of culture? Suburb of culture? Hamlet of culture?

It is also wise lo recall that such titles are not a cure-all. A badly run “year of culture” washes in and out of a place like the tide, bringing prominence for a spell but leaving no lasting benefits to the community. The really successful holders of such titles are those that do a great deal more than fill hotel bedrooms and bring in high-profile arts events and good press for a year. They transform the aspirations of the people who live there; they nudge the self-image of the city into a bolder and more optimistic light. It is hard to get right, and requires a remarkable degree of vision, as well as cooperation between city authorities, the private sector, community. groups and cultural organisations. But it can be done: Glasgow’s year as European capital of culture can certainly be seen as one of complex series of factors that have turned the city into the power of art, music and theatre that it remains today.

A “town of culture” could be not just about the arts but about honouring a town’s peculiarities—helping sustain its high street, supporting local facilities and above all celebrating its people and turn it into action.

21. Cooper and her colleagues argue that a “town of culture” award could___D____

[A] consolidate the town-city ties in Britain.

[B] promote cooperation among Britain’s towns.

[C] increase the economic strength of Britain’s towns.

[D] focus Britain’s limited resources on cultural events.

22. According to Paragraph 2, the proposal might be regarded by some as B

[A] a sensible compromise.

[B] a self-deceiving attempt.

[C] an eye-catching bonus.

[D] an inaccessible target.

23. The author suggests that a title holder is successful only if it D

[A] endeavours to maintain its image.

[B] meets the aspirations of its people.

[C] brings its local arts to prominence.

[D] commits to its long-term growth.

24. Glasgow is mentioned in Paragraph 3 to present B

[A] a contrasting case.

(B] a supporting example.

[C] a background story.

[D] a related topic.

25. What is the author’s attitude towards the proposal? C

[A] Skeptical.

[B] Objective.

[C] Favourable.

[D] Critical.

Text 2

Scientific publishing has long been a licence to print money. Scientists need journals in which to publish their research, so they will supply the articles without monetary reward. Other scientists perform the specialised work of peer review also for free, because it is a central element in the acquisition of status and the production of scientific knowledge.

With the content of papers secured for free, the publisher needs only find a market for its journal. Until this century, university libraries were not very price sensitive. Scientific publishers routinely report profit margins approaching 40% on their operations, at a time when the rest of the publishing industry is in an existential crisis.

The Dutch giant Elsevier, which claims to publish 25% of the scientific papers produced in the world, made profits of more than £900m last year, while UK universities alone spent more than £210m in 2016 to enable researchers to access their own publicly funded research; both figures seem to rise unstoppably despite increasingly desperate efforts to change them.

The most drastic, and thoroughly illegal, reaction has been the emergence of Sci-Hub, a kind of global photocopier for scientific papers, set up in 2012, which now claims to offer access to every paywalled article published since 2015. The success of Sci-Hub, which relies on researchers passing on copies they have themselves legally accessed, shows the legal ecosystem has lost legitimacy among is users and must be transformed so that it works for all participants.

In Britain the move towards open access publishing has been driven by funding bodies. In some ways it has been very successful. More than half of all British scientific research is now published under open access terms: either freely available from the moment of publication, or paywalled for a year or more so that the publishers can make a profit before being placed on general release.

Yet the new system has not worked out any cheaper for the universities. Publishers have responded to the demand that they make their product free to readers by charging their writers fees to cover the costs of preparing an article. These range from around £500 to $5,000. A report last year pointed out that the costs both of subscriptions and of these “article preparation costs" had been steadily rising at a rate above inflation. In some ways the scientific publishing model resembles the economy of the social internet: labour is provided free in exchange for the hope of status, while huge profits are made by a few big firms who run the market places. In both cases, we need a rebalancing of power.

26. Scientific publishing is seen as “a licence to print money” partly because D

[A] its funding has enjoyed a steady increase.

[B] its marketing strategy has been successful.

[C] its payment for peer review is reduced.

[D] its content acquisition costs nothing.

27. According to Paragraphs 2 and 3, scientific publishers Elsevier have A

[A] thrived mainly on university libraries.

[B] gone through an existential crisis.

[C] revived the publishing industry.

[D] financed researchers generously.

28. How does the author feel about the success of Sci-Hub? D

[A] Relieved.

[B] Puzzled.

[C] Concerned.

[D] Encouraged.

29. It can be learned from Paragraphs 5 and 6 that open access terms A .

[A] allow publishers some room to make money.

[B] render publishing much easier for scientists.

[C] reduce the cost of publication substantially

[D] free universities from financial burdens.

30. Which of the following characteristics the scientific publishing model? D

[A] Trial subscription is offered.

[B] Labour triumphs over status.

[C] Costs are well controlled.

[D]The few feed on the many.

Text 3

Progressives often support diversity mandates as a path to equality and a way to level the playing field. But all too often such policies are an insincere form of virtue-signaling that benefits only the most privileged and does little to help average people.

A pair of bills sponsored by Massachusetts state Senator Jason Lewis and House Speaker Pro Tempore Patricia Haddad, to ensure “gender parity” on boards and commissions, provide a case in point.

Haddad and Lewis are concerned that more than half the state-government boards are less than 40 percent female. In order to ensure that elite women have more such opportunities, they have proposed imposing government quotas. If the bills become law, state boards and commissions will be required to set aside 50 percent of board seats for women by 2022.

The bills are similar to a measure recently adopted in California, which last year became the first state to require gender quotas for private companies. In signing the measure, California Governor Jerry Brown admitted that the law, which expressly classifies people on the basis of sex, is probably unconstitutional.

The US Supreme Court frowns on sex-based classifications unless they are designed to address an “important” policy interest, Because the California law applies to all boards, even where there is no history of prior discrimination, courts are likely to rule that the law violates the constitutional guarantee of “equal protection”.

But are such government mandates even necessary? Female participation on corporate boards may not currently mirror the percentage of women in the general population, but so what?

The number of women on corporate boards has been steadily increasing without government interference. According to a study by Catalyst, between 2010 and 2015 the share of women on the boards of global corporations increased by 54 percent.

Requiring companies to make gender the primary qualification for board membership will inevitably lead to less experienced private sector boards. That is exactly what happened when Norway adopted a nationwide corporate gender quota.

Writing in The New Republic, Alice Lee notes that increasing the number of opportunities for board membership without increasing the pool of qualified women to serve on such boards has led to a “golden skirt” phenomenon. where the same elite women scoop up multiple seats on a variety of boards.

Next time somebody pushes corporate quotas as a way to promote gender equity, remember that such policies are largely self-serving measures that make their sponsors feel good but do little to help average women.

31. The author believes hat the bills sponsored by Lewis and Haddad will___A____

[A] help little to reduce gender bias.

[B] pose a threat to the state government.

[C] raise women’s position in politics.

[D] greatly broaden career options.

32. Which of the following is true of the California measure? C

[A] It has irritated private business owners.

[B] It is welcomed by the Supreme Court.

[C]It may go against the Constitution.

[D] It will settle the prior controversies.

33. The author mentions the study by Catalyst to illustrate___D____

[A] the harm from arbitrary board decision.

[B] the importance of constitutional guarantees.

[C] the pressure on women in global corporations.

[D] the needlessness of government interventions.

34. Norway’s adoption of a nationwide corporate gender quota has led to__C____

[A] the underestimation of elite women’s role.

[B] the objection to female participation on bards.

[C] the entry of unqualified candidates into the board.

[D] the growing tension between Labor and management.

35. Which of the following can be inferred from the text? B

IAI Women’s need in employment should be considered

[B] Feasibility should be a prime concern in policymaking.

[C] Everyone should try hard to promote social justice.

[D] Major social issues should be the focus of legislation.

Text 4

Last Thursday, the French Senate passed a digital services tax, which would impose an entirely new tax on large multinationals that provide digital services to consumers or users in France. Digital services include everything from providing a platform for selling goods and services online to targeting advertising based on user data. and the tax applies to gross revenue from such services. Many French politicians and media outlets have referred to this as a“GAFA tax," meaning that it is designed to apply primarily to companies such as Google, Apple, Facebook and Amazon — in other words, multinational tech companies based in the United States.

The digital services tax now awaits the signature of President Emmanuel Macron, who has expressed support for the measure, and it could go into effect within the next few weeks. But it has already sparked significant controversy, with the Unite States trade representative opening an investigation into whether the tax discriminates against American companies, which in turn could lead to trade sanctions against France.

The French tax is not just a unilateral move by one country in need of revenue. Instead, the digital services tax is part of a much larger trend, with countries over the past few years proposing or putting in place an alphabet soup of new international tax provisions. These have included Britain's DPT (diverted profits tax), Australia's MAAL (multinational antiavoidance law), and India's SEP (significant economic presence) test, to. name but a few. At the same time, the European Union, Spain, Britain and several other countries have all seriously contemplated digital services taxes.

These unilateral developments differ in their specifics, but they are all designed to tax multinationals on income and revenue that countries believe they should have a right to tax, even if international tax rules do not grant them that right. In other words, they all share a view that the international tax system has failed to keep up with the current economy.

In response to these many unilateral measures, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is currently working with 131 countries to reach a consensus by the end of 2020 on an international solution. Both France and the United States are involved in the organization's work, but France's digital services tax and the American response raise questions about what the future holds for the international tax system.

France's planned tax is a clear waning: Unless a broad consensus can be reached on reforming the international tax system. other nations are likely to follow suit, and American companies will face a cascade of different taxes from dozens of nations that will prove burdensome and costly.

36. The French Senate has passed a bill to___C____

[A] regulate digital services platforms.

[B] protect French companies' interests.

[C] impose a levy on tech multinationals.

[D] curb the influence of advertising.

37. It can be learned from Paragraph 2 that the digital services tax__A_____

[A] may trigger countermeasures against France.

[B] is apt to arouse criticism at home and abroad.

[C] aims to ease international trade tensions.

[D] will prompt the tech giants to quit France.

38. The countries adopting the unilateral measures share the opinion that___B____

[A] redistribution of tech giants' revenue must be ensured.

[B] the current international tax system needs upgrading

[C] tech multinationals' monopoly should be prevented.

[D] all countries ought to enjoy equal taxing rights.

39. It can be learned from Paragraph 5 that the OECO's current work__C_____

[A] is being resisted by US companies.

[B] needs to be readjusted immediately.

[C] is faced with uncertain prospects.

[D] needs to involve more countries.

40. Which of the following might be the best title for this text? B

[A] France Is Confronted with Trade Sanctions

[B] France leads the charge on Digital Tax

[C]France Says "NO" to Tech Multinationals

[D] France Demands a Role in the Digital Economy

Part B


Read the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subheading from the A-G for each of the numbered paragraph (41-45). There are two extra subheadings. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

[A] Eye fixations are brief

[B] Too much eye contact is instinctively felt to rude

[C] Eye contact can be a friendly social signal

[D] Personality can affect how a person reacts to eye contact

[E] Biological factors behind eye contact are being investigated

[F] Most people are not comfortable holding eye contact with strangers

[G] Eye contact can also be aggressive.

In a social situation, eye contact with another person can show that you are paying attention in a friendly way. But it can also be antagonistic such as when a political candidate turns toward their competitor during a debate and makes eye contact that signals hostility. Here’s what hard science reveals about eye contact:


We know that a typical infant will instinctively gaze into its mother’s eyes, and she will look back. This mutual gaze is a major part of the attachment between mother and child. In adulthood, looking someone else in a pleasant way can be a complimentary sign of paying attention. It can catch someone’s attention in a crowded room, “Eye contact and smile” can signal availability and confidence, a common-sense notion supported in studies by psychologist Monica Moore.


Neuroscientist Bonnie Augeung found that the hormone oxytocin increased the amount of eye contact from men toward the interviewer during a brief interview when the direction of their gaze was recorded. This was also found in high-functioning men with some autistic spectrum symptoms, who may tend to avoid eye contact. Specific brain regions that respond during direct gaze are being explored by other researches, using advanced methods of brain scanning.


With the use of eye-tracking technology, Julia Minson of the Harvard Kennedy School of Government concluded that eye contact can signal very different kinds of messages, depending on the situation. While eye contact may be a sign of connection or trust in friendly situations, it’s more likely to be associated with dominance or intimidation in adversarial situations. “Whether you're a politician or a parent, it might be helpful to keep in mind that trying to maintain eye contact may backfire if you're trying to convince someone who has a different set of beliefs than you,” said Minson.


When we look at a face or a picture, our eyes pause on one spot at a time, often on the eyes or mouth. These pauses typically occur at about three per second, and the eyes then jump to another spot, until several important points in the image are registered like a series of snapshots. How the whole image is then assembled and perceived is still a mystery although it is the subject of current research.


In people who score high in a test of neuroticism, a personality dimension associated with self-consciousness and anxiety, eye contact triggered more activity associated with avoidance, according to the Finnish researcher Jari Hietanen and colleagues. “Our findings indicate that people do not only feel different when they are the centre of attention but that their brain reactions also differ.” A more direct finding is that people who scored high for negative emotions like anxiety looked at others for shorter periods of time and reported more comfortable feelings when others did not look directly at them.

41. C Eye contact can be a friendly social signalE

42. E Biological factors behind eye contact are being investigated

43. G Eye contact can also be aggressive

44. A Eye fixactions are brief

45. D Personality can affect how a person reacts to eye contact

Part C


Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

Following the explosion of creativity in Florence during the 14th century known as the Renaissance, the modern world saw a departure from what it had once known. It turned from God and the authority of the Roman Catholic Church and instead favoured a more humanistic approach to being. Renaissance ideas had spread throughout Europe well into the 17th century, with the arts and sciences flourishing extraordinarily among those with a more logical disposition. (46)With the Church’s teachings and ways of thinking eclipsed by the Renaissance, the gap between the Medieval and modem periods had been bridged leading to new and unexplored intellectual territories.

During the Renaissance, the great minds of Nicolaus Copernicus, Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei demonstrated the power of scientific study and discovery. (47)Before each of their revelations, many thinkers at the time had sustained more ancient ways of thinking, including the geo-centric view that the Earth was at the centre of our universe. Copernicus theorized in 1543 that all of the planets that we knew of revolved not around the Earth, but the Sun, a system that was later upheld by Galileo at his own expense. Offering up such a theory during a time of high tension between scientific and religious minds was branded as heresy, and any such heretics that continued to spread these lies were to be punished by imprisonment or even death.

(48)Despite attempts by the Church to suppress this new generation of logicians and rationalists, more explanations for how the universe functioned were being made at a rate that the people could no longer ignore. It was with these great revelations that a new kind of philosophy founded in reason was born.

The Church’s long standing dogma was losing the great battle for truth to rationalists and scientists. This very fact embodied the new ways of thinking that swept through Europe during most of 17th century. (49)As many took on the duty of trying to integrate reasoning and scientific philosophies into the world, the Renaissance was over and it was time for a new era—the Age of Reason.

The 17th and 18th centuries were times of radical change and curiosity. Scientific method, reductionism and the questioning of Church ideals was to be encouraged, as were ideas of liberty, tolerance and progress. (50) Such actions to seek knowledge and to understand what information we already knew were captured by the Latin phrase ‘sapere aude’ or ‘dare to know’, after Immanuel Kant used it in his essay “An Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment?”. It was the purpose and responsibility of great minds to go forth and seek out the truth, which they believed to be founded in knowledge.


46. 随着教会的教义和思维方式在文艺复兴时期黯然失色,中世纪与现代之间的鸿沟得以弥合,从而出现了新的及尚未开发的知识领域。

47. 在每个真理揭示之前,当时的许多思想家都采用了更古老的思维方式,仍旧沿用以前的思维模式,其中包括认为地球是宇宙中心的地球中心说。

48. 尽管教会试图镇压这一代逻辑学家和理性主义者,但人们对宇宙如何运转的解释却越来越多,并且以一种不容忽视的速度在增加。

49. 当许多人承担起将理性科学的哲学融入世界的责任时,文艺复兴时代已经结束,并且开启了一个新的时代。

50. 此类寻求知识和了解已知信息的行为被拉丁语概括为:“sapere aude”即“敢于求知”。

Section III Writing

Part A

51. Directions:

The student union of your university has assigned you to inform the international students about an upcoming singing contest. Write a notice in about 100 words.

Write your answer on the ANSWER SHEET.

Do not use your own name in the notice. (10 points)



Dec. 21, 2019

In order to enrich the campus life and provide the colorful life for you, the Students’ Union is preparing the upcoming singing contest, which will be held in the auditorium in our university on the evening of December 31, 2019. Now, the Union is recruiting contestants for this competition.

Anyone who are fond of signing or interested in the competition, please send his or her application to students’ union @sohu.com before next Wednesday. Besides, there are generous awards in gratitude for this activity. Please do not hesitate to contact us if you have any queries concerning the singing contest. Meanwhile, volunteers for this activity are badly needed to assist us in organizing the relevant affairs.

We are looking forward to your participation.

The Students’ Union








Part B

52. Directions:

Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the pictures below. In your essay, you should

1) describe the picture briefly,

2) interpret the implied meaning, and

3) give your comments.

Write your answer on the ANSWER SHEET. (20 points)


Portrayed distinctively by the two cartoons above is an impressive scene: a girl in the left picture is doing homework and saying that early completion is better. Nevertheless, the boy in the right picture is sitting in front of the desk and saying that he will not finish the homework until the last minute.

Undoubtedly, the symbolic implication of the pictures is to show us that importance should be attached to the formation of good habits, especially the good habit of time management. On the one hand, efficient time management is critical to personal development. As the old saying goes, “Time is money,” and in the fast-paced modern life, it seems that we always have a lot of things to do and we are very busy. In the face of such a situation, we have to realize that efficiency holds the key to saving time and time management skills hold the key to personal success. On the other hand, good time management habits play a vital role in the development of the whole society. There is no doubt that, to a large extent, social progress is closely related to the efforts of each individual. If we can develop the good habit of time management, we are much more likely to improve efficiency and have a better performance in the learning and working process, which is an integral part of social advances and prosperity.

From what has been mentioned above, we can come to the conclusion that the sense of efficient time management skills is of equal importance in personal and social progress. Therefore, we ought to take advantage of the phenomenon to enlighten the public and the press is expected to take a lead in advertising the value of developing good time management habits. Only in this way can we have a bright future.





Section I Structure and Vocabulary

Part A


Beneath each of the following sentences, there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Choose the one that best completes the sentence. Mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets. (5 points)

1. Do you enjoy listening to records? I find records are often ________, or better than an actual performance.

[A] as good as

[B] as good

[C] good(A)

[D] good as

2. My pain ________ apparent the moment I walked into the room, for the first man I met asked sympathetically: “Are you feeling all right?”

[A] must be

[B] had

[C] must have been(C)

[D] had to be

3. The senior librarian at the circulation desk promised to get the book for me ________ she could remember who last borrowed it.

[A] ever since

[B] much as

[C] even though(D)

[D] if only

4. Observations were made ________ the children at the beginning and at the end of preschool and first grade.

[A] towards

[B] of

[C] on(B)

[D] with

5. The article opens and closes with descriptions of two news reports, each ________ one major point in contrast with the other.

[A] makes

[B] made

[C] is to make(D)

[D] making

6. A safety analysis ________ the target as a potential danger. Unfortunately, it was never done.

[A] would identify

[B] will identify

[C] would have identified(C)

[D] will have identified

7. The number of registered participants in this year’s marathon was half ________.

[A] of last year’s

[B] those of last year’s

[C] of those of last year's(D)

[D] that of last year’s

8. For there ________ successful communication, there must be attentiveness and involvement in the discussion itself by all present.

[A] is

[B] to be

[C] will be(B)

[D] being

9. There was a very interesting remark in a book by an Englishman that I read recently ________ what he thought was a reason for this American characteristic.

[A] giving

[B] gave

[C] to give(A)

[D] given

10. No one would have time to read or listen to an account of everything ________ going on in the world.

[A] it is

[B] as is

[C] there is(C)

[D] what is

Part B


Each of the following sentences has four underlined parts marked [A], [B], [C], and [D]. Identify the part of the sentence that is incorrect and mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil. (5 points)

11. I’d rather you would goA by train, because I can’t bearB the idea of your beingC in an airplane in suchD bad weather.([A] went)

12. It’s essential that people beA psychologicalB able to resist the impact brought aboutC by the transition from plannedD economy to market economy.([B] psychologically)

13. Some bosses dislike to allowA people to shareB their responsibilities; they keep allC important matters tightlyD in their own hands.([A] allowing)

14. Each cigarette which a person smokes doesA someB harm, and eventually youC may get a serious disease from itsD effect.([C] he)

15. On the wholeA, ambitious students are much likelyB to succeed in their studies than are thoseC withD little ambition.([B] are more likely)

16. DespiteA much research, there are still certain elements inB the life cycle of the insect that isC not fully understoodD.([C] are)

17. In 1921 Einstein won the Nobel Prize, and was honoredA in Germany until the riseB of Nazism thenC he was driven fromD Germany because he was a Jew.([C] when)

18. The data receivedA from the two spacecraftsB whirling around Mars indicateC that there is much evidence that huge thunderstorms are occurringD about the equator of the planet.([B] two spacecraft)

19. Generally speaking, the bird flying acrossA our path is observed, and the oneB staying on the tree near at handC is passed by without any notice takingD of it.([D] taken)

20. Mercury’s velocity is so muchA greater than the Earth’sB that it completes more than four revolutions around the Sun in the time thatC takes the Earth to complete oneD.([C] it)

Part C


Beneath each of the following sentences, there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Choose the one that best completes the sentence. Mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil. (10 points)

21. I was speaking to Ann on the phone when suddenly we were ________.

[A] hung up

[B] hung back

[C] cut down(D)

[D] cut off

22. She wondered if she could have the opportunity to spend ________ here so that she could learn more about the city.

[A] sometimes

[B] some time

[C] sometime(B)

[D] some times

23. Ms. Green has been living in town for only one year, yet she seems to be ________ with everyone who comes to the store.

[A] accepted

[B] admitted

[C] admired(D)

[D] acquainted

24. He does not ________ as a teacher of English as his pronunciation is terrible.

[A] equal

[B] match

[C] qualify(C)

[D] fit

25. Dozens of scientific groups all over the world have been ________ the goal of a practical and economic way to use sunlight to split water molecules.

[A] pursuing

[B] chasing

[C] reaching(A)

[D] winning

26. The discussion was so prolonged and exhausting that ________ the speakers stopped for refreshments.

[A] at large

[B] at intervals

[C] at ease(B)

[D] at random

27. When travelling, you are advised to take travellers’ checks, which provide a secure ________ to carrying your money in cash.

[A] substitute

[B] selection

[C] preference(D)

[D] alternative

28. I never trusted him because I always thought of him as such a ________ character.

[A] gracious

[B] suspicious

[C] unique(B)

[D] particular

29. Changing from solid to liquid, water takes in heat from all substances near it, and this ________ produces artificial cold surrounding it.

[A] absorption

[B] transition

[C] consumption(A)

[D] interaction

30. I didn’t say anything like that at all. You are purposely ________ my ideas to prove your point.

[A] revising

[B] contradicting

[C] distorting(C)

[D] distracting

31. Language, culture, and personality may be considered ________ of each other in thought, but they are inseparable in fact.

[A] indistinctly

[B] separately

[C] irrelevantly(D)

[D] independently

32. Watching me pulling the calf awkwardly to the barn, the Irish milkmaid fought hard to ________ her laughter.

[A] hold back

[B] hold on

[C] hold out(A)

[D] hold up

33. The manager gave one of the salesgirls an accusing look for her ________ attitude toward customers.

[A] impartial

[B] mild

[C] hostile(C)

[D] opposing

34. I ________ with thanks the help of my colleagues in the preparation of this new column.

[A] express

[B] confess

[C] verify(D)

[D] acknowledge

35. It is strictly ________ that access to confidential documents is denied to all but a few.

[A] secured

[B] forbidden

[C] regulated(C)

[D] determined

36. The pollution question as well as several other issues is going to be discussed when the Congress is in ________ again next spring.

[A] assembly

[B] session

[C] conference(B)

[D] convention

37. Christmas is a Christian holy day usually celebrated on December 25th ________ the birth of Jesus Christ.

[A] in accordance with

[B] in terms of

[C] in favor of(D)

[D] in honor of

38. Since it is too late to change my mind now, I am ________ to carrying out the plan.

[A] obliged

[B] committed

[C] engaged(B)

[D] resolved

39. It was a bold idea to build a power station in the deep valley, but it ________ as well as we had hoped.

[A] came off

[B] went off

[C] brought out(A)

[D] made out

40. To survive in the intense trade competition between countries, we must ________ the qualities and varieties of products we make to the world-market demand.

[A] improve

[B] enhanced

[C] guarantee(D)

[D] gear

Section II Cloze Test


For each numbered blank in the following passage, there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Choose the best one and mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil. (10 points)

Vitamins are organic compounds necessary in small amounts in the diet for the normal growth and maintenance of life of animals, including man.

They do not provide energy, do they construct or build any part of the body. They are needed for foods into energy and body maintenance. There are thirteen or more of them, and if is missing a deficiency disease becomes .

Vitamins are similar because they are made of the same elements -- usually carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. They are different their elements are arranged differently, and each vitamin one or more specific functions in the body.

enough vitamins is essential to life, although the body has no nutritional use for vitamins. Many people, , believe in being on the “safe side” and thus take extra vitamins. However, a well-balanced diet will usually meet all the body’s vitamin needs.

41. [A] either

[B] so

[C] nor(C)

[D] never

42. [A] shifting

[B] transferring

[C] altering(D)

[D] transforming

43. [A] any

[B] some

[C] anything(A)

[D] something

44. [A] serious

[B] apparent

[C] severe(B)

[D] fatal

45. [A] mostly

[B] partially

[C] sometimes(C)

[D] rarely

46. [A] in that

[B] so that

[C] such that(A)

[D] except that

47. [A] undertakes

[B] holds

[C] plays(D)

[D] performs

48. [A] Supplying

[B] Getting

[C] Providing(B)

[D] Furnishing

49. [A] exceptional

[B] exceeding

[C] excess(C)

[D] external

50. [A] nevertheless

[B] therefore

[C] moreover(A)

[D] meanwhile

Section III Reading Comprehension


Each of the passages below is followed by some questions. For each question there are four answers marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each of the questions. Then mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil. (40 points)

Text 1

Tight-lipped elders used to say, “It’s not what you want in this world, but what you get.”

Psychology teaches that you do get what you want if you know what you want and want the right things.

You can make a mental blueprint of a desire as you would make a blueprint of a house, and each of us is continually making these blueprints in the general routine of everyday living. If we intend to have friends to dinner, we plan the menu, make a shopping list, decide which food to cook first, and such planning is an essential for any type of meal to be served.

Likewise, if you want to find a job, take a sheet of paper, and write a brief account of yourself. In making a blueprint for a job, begin with yourself, for when you know exactly what you have to offer, you can intelligently plan where to sell your services.

This account of yourself is actually a sketch of your working life and should include education, experience and references. Such an account is valuable. It can be referred to in filling out standard application blanks and is extremely helpful in personal interviews. While talking to you, your could-be employer is deciding whether your education, your experience, and other qualifications, will pay him to employ you and your “wares” and abilities must be displayed in an orderly and reasonably connected manner.

When you have carefully prepared a blueprint of your abilities and desires, you have something tangible to sell. Then you are ready to hunt for a job. Get all the possible information about your could-be job. Make inquiries as to the details regarding the job and the firm. Keep your eyes and ears open, and use your own judgment. Spend a certain amount of time each day seeking the employment you wish for, and keep in mind: Securing a job is your job now.

51. What do the elders mean when they say, “It’s not what you want in this world, but what you get.”?

[A] You’ll certainly get what you want.

[B] It’s no use dreaming.

[C] You should be dissatisfied with what you have.(B)

[D] It’s essential to set a goal for yourself.

52. A blueprint made before inviting a friend to dinner is used in this passage as ________.

[A] an illustration of how to write an application for a job

[B] an indication of how to secure a good job

[C] a guideline for job description(A)

[D] a principle for job evaluation

53. According to the passage, one must write an account of himself before starting to find a job because ________.

[A] that is the first step to please the employer

[B] that is the requirement of the employer

[C] it enables him to know when to sell his services(D)

[D] it forces him to become clearly aware of himself

54. When you have carefully prepared a blueprint of your abilities and desires, you have something ________.

[A] definite to offer

[B] imaginary to provide

[C] practical to supply(A)

[D] desirable to present

Text 2

With the start of BBC World Service Television, millions of viewers in Asia and America can now watch the Corporation’s news coverage, as well as listen to it.

And of course in Britain listeners and viewers can tune in to two BBC television channels, five BBC national radio services and dozens of local radio stations. They are brought sport, comedy, drama, music, news and current affairs, education, religion, parliamentary coverage, children’s programmes and films for an annual license fee of £83 per household.

It is a remarkable record, stretching back over 70 years -- yet the BBC’s future is now in doubt. The Corporation will survive as a publicly-funded broadcasting organization, at least for the time being, but its role, its size and its programmes are now the subject of a nation-wide debate in Britain.

The debate was launched by the Government, which invited anyone with an opinion of the BBC -- including ordinary listeners and viewers -- to say what was good or bad about the Corporation, and even whether they thought it was worth keeping. The reason for its inquiry is that the BBC’s royal charter runs out in 1996 and it must decide whether to keep the organization as it is, or to make changes.

Defenders of the Corporation -- of whom there are many -- are fond of quoting the American slogan “If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it.” The BBC “ain’t broke,” they say, by which they mean it is not broken (as distinct from the word ‘broke’, meaning having no money), so why bother to change it?

Yet the BBC will have to change, because the broadcasting world around it is changing. The commercial TV channels – ITV and Channel 4 -- were required by the Thatcher Government’s Broadcasting Act to become more commercial, competing with each other for advertisers, and cutting costs and jobs. But it is the arrival of new satellite channels -- funded partly by advertising and partly by viewers’ subscriptions -- which will bring about the biggest changes in the long term.

55. The world famous BBC now faces ________.

[A] the problem of new coverage

[B] an uncertain prospect

[C] inquiries by the general public(B)

[D] shrinkage of audience

56. In the passage, which of the following about the BBC is NOT mentioned as the key issue?

[A] Extension of its TV service to Far East.

[B] Programmes as the subject of a nation-wide debate.

[C] Potentials for further international cooperations.(C)

[D] Its existence as a broadcasting organization.

57. The BBC’s “royal charter” (Line 4, Paragraph 4) stands for ________.

[A] the financial support from the royal family

[B] the privileges granted by the Queen

[C] a contract with the Queen(C)

[D] a unique relationship with the royal family

58. The foremost reason why the BBC has to readjust itself is no other than ________.

[A] the emergence of commercial TV channels

[B] the enforcement of Broadcasting Act by the government

[C] the urgent necessity to reduce costs and jobs(D)

[D] the challenge of new satellite channels

Text 3

In the last half of the nineteenth century “capital” and “labour” were enlarging and perfecting their rival organizations on modern lines. Many an old firm was replaced by a limited liability company with a bureaucracy of salaried managers. The change met the technical requirements of the new age by engaging a large professional element and prevented the decline in efficiency that so commonly spoiled the fortunes of family firms in the second and third generation after the energetic founders. It was moreover a step away from individual initiative, towards collectivism and municipal and state-owned business. The railway companies, though still private business managed for the benefit of shareholders, were very unlike old family business. At the same time the great municipalities went into business to supply lighting, trams and other services to the taxpayers.

The growth of the limited liability company and municipal business had important consequences. Such large, impersonal manipulation of capital and industry greatly increased the numbers and importance of shareholders as a class, an element in national life representing irresponsible wealth detached from the land and the duties of the landowners; and almost equally detached from the responsible management of business. All through the nineteenth century, America, Africa, India, Australia and parts of Europe were being developed by British capital, and British shareholders were thus enriched by the world’s movement towards industrialization. Towns like Bournemouth and Eastbourne sprang up to house large “comfortable” classes who had retired on their incomes, and who had no relation to the rest of the community except that of drawing dividends and occasionally attending a shareholders’ meeting to dictate their orders to the management. On the other hand “shareholding” meant leisure and freedom which was used by many of the later Victorians for the highest purpose of a great civilization.

The “shareholders” as such had no knowledge of the lives, thoughts or needs of the workmen employed by the company in which he held shares, and his influence on the relations of capital and labour was not good. The paid manager acting for the company was in more direct relation with the men and their demands, but even he had seldom that familiar personal knowledge of the workmen which the employer had often had under the more patriarchal system of the old family business now passing away. Indeed the mere size of operations and the numbers of workmen involved rendered such personal relations impossible. Fortunately, however, the increasing power and organization of the trade unions, at least in all skilled trades, enabled the workmen to meet on equal terms the managers of the companies who employed them. The cruel discipline of the strike and lockout taught the two parties to respect each other’s strength and understand the value of fair negotiation.

59. It’s true of the old family firms that ________.

[A] they were spoiled by the younger generations

[B] they failed for lack of individual initiative

[C] they lacked efficiency compared with modern companies(C)

[D] they could supply adequate services to the taxpayers

60. The growth of limited liability companies resulted in ________.

[A] the separation of capital from management

[B] the ownership of capital by managers

[C] the emergence of capital and labour as two classes(A)

[D] the participation of shareholders in municipal business

61. According to the passage, all of the following are true EXCEPT that ________.

[A] the shareholders were unaware of the needs of the workers

[B] the old firm owners had a better understanding of their workers

[C] the limited liability companies were too large to run smoothly(C)

[D] the trade unions seemed to play a positive role

62. The author is most critical of ________.

[A] family film owners

[B] landowners

[C] managers(D)

[D] shareholders

Text 4

What accounts for the great outburst of major inventions in early America -- breakthroughs such as the telegraph, the steamboat and the weaving machine?

Among the many shaping factors, I would single out the country’s excellent elementary schools: a labor force that welcomed the new technology; the practice of giving premiums to inventors; and above all the American genius for nonverbal, “spatial” thinking about things technological.

Why mention the elementary schools? Because thanks to these schools our early mechanics, especially in the New England and Middle Atlantic states, were generally literate and at home in arithmetic and in some aspects of geometry and trigonometry.

Acute foreign observers related American adaptiveness and inventiveness to this educational advantage. As a member of a British commission visiting here in 1853 reported, “With a mind prepared by thorough school discipline, the American boy develops rapidly into the skilled workman.”

A further stimulus to invention came from the “premium” system, which preceded our patent system and for years ran parallel with it. This approach, originated abroad, offered inventors medals, cash prizes and other incentives.

In the United States, multitudes of premiums for new devices were awarded at country fairs and at the industrial fairs in major cities. Americans flocked to these fairs to admire the new machines and thus to renew their faith in the beneficence of technological advance.

Given this optimistic approach to technological innovation, the American worker took readily to that special kind of nonverbal thinking required in mechanical technology. As Eugene Ferguson has pointed out, “A technologist thinks about objects that cannot be reduced to unambiguous verbal descriptions: they are dealt with in his mind by a visual, nonverbal process... The designer and the inventor... are able to assemble and manipulate in their minds devices that as yet do not exist.”

This nonverbal “spatial” thinking can be just as creative as painting and writing. Robert Fulton once wrote, “The mechanic should sit down among levers, screws, wedges, wheels, etc., like a poet among the letters of the alphabet, considering them as an exhibition of his thoughts, in which a new arrangement transmits a new idea.”

When all these shaping forces -- schools, open attitudes, the premium system, a genius for spatial thinking -- interacted with one another on the rich U.S. mainland, they produced that American characteristic, emulation. Today that word implies mere imitation. But in earlier times it meant a friendly but competitive striving for fame and excellence.

63. According to the author, the great outburst of major inventions in early America was in a large part due to ________.

[A] elementary schools

[B] enthusiastic workers

[C] the attractive premium system(D)

[D] a special way of thinking

64. It is implied that adaptiveness and inventiveness of the early American mechanics ________.

[A] benefited a lot from their mathematical knowledge

[B] shed light on disciplined school management

[C] was brought about by privileged home training(A)

[D] owed a lot to the technological development

65. A technologist can be compared to an artist because ________.

[A] they are both winners of awards

[B] they are both experts in spatial thinking

[C] they both abandon verbal description(B)

[D] they both use various instruments

66. The best title for this passage might be ________.

[A] Inventive Mind

[B] Effective Schooling

[B] Ways of Thinking(A)

[D] Outpouring of Inventions

Text 5

Rumor has it that more than 20 books on creationism/evolution are in the publisher’s pipelines. A few have already appeared. The goal of all will be to try to explain to a confused and often unenlightened citizenry that there are not two equally valid scientific theories for the origin and evolution of universe and life. Cosmology, geology, and biology have provided a consistent, unified, and constantly improving account of what happened. “Scientific” creationism, which is being pushed by some for “equal time” in the classrooms whenever the scientific accounts of evolution are given, is based on religion, not science. Virtually all scientists and the majority of non-fundamentalist religious leaders have come to regard “scientific” creationism as bad science and bad religion.

The first four chapters of Kitcher’s book give a very brief introduction to evolution. At appropriate places, he introduces the criticisms of the creationists and provides answers. In the last three chapters, he takes off his gloves and gives the creationists a good beating. He describes their programmes and tactics, and, for those unfamiliar with the ways of creationists, the extent of their deception and distortion may come as an unpleasant surprise. When their basic motivation is religious, one might have expected more Christian behavior.

Kitcher is a philosopher, and this may account, in part, for the clarity and effectiveness of his arguments. The non-specialist will be able to obtain at least a notion of the sorts of data and argument that support evolutionary theory. The final chapter on the creationists will be extremely clear to all. On the dust jacket of this fine book, Stephen Jay Gould says: “This book stands for reason itself.” And so it does -- and all would be well were reason the only judge in the creationism/evolution debate.

67. “Creationism” in the passage refers to ________.

[A] evolution in its true sense as to the origin of the universe

[B] a notion of the creation of religion

[C] the scientific explanation of the earth formation(D)

[D] the deceptive theory about the origin of the universe

68. Kitcher’s book is intended to ________.

[A] recommend the views of the evolutionists

[B] expose the true features of creationists

[C] curse bitterly at this opponents(B)

[D] launch a surprise attack on creationists

69. From the passage we can infer that ________.

[A] reasoning has played a decisive role in the debate

[B] creationists do not base their argument on reasoning

[C] evolutionary theory is too difficult for non-specialists(B)

[D] creationism is supported by scientific findings

70. This passage appears to be a digest of ________.

[A] a book review

[B] a scientific paper

[C] a magazine feature(A)

[D] a newspaper editorial

Section IV English-Chinese Translation


Read the following passage carefully and then translate the underlined sentences into Chinese. Your translation must be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)

The differences in relative growth of various areas of scientific research have several causes. 71) Some of these causes are completely reasonable results of social needs. Others are reasonable consequences of particular advances in science being to some extent self-accelerating. Some, however, are less reasonable processes of different growth in which preconception of the form scientific theory ought to take, by persons in authority, act to alter the growth pattern of different areas. This is a new problem probably not yet unavoidable; but it is a frightening trend. 72) This trend began during the Second World War, when several governments came to the conclusion that the specific demands that a government wants to make of its scientific establishment cannot generally be foreseen in detail. It can be predicted, however, that from time to time, questions will arise which will require specific scientific answers. It is therefore generally valuable to treat the scientific establishment as a resource or machine to be kept in functional order. 73) This seems mostly effectively done by supporting a certain amount of research not related to immediate goals but of possible consequence in the future.

This kind of support, like all government support, requires decisions about the appropriate recipients of funds. Decisions based on utility as opposed to lack of utility are straightforward. But a decision among projects none of which has immediate utility is more difficult. The goal of the supporting agencies is the praisable one of supporting “good” as opposed to “bad” science, but a valid determination is difficult to make. Generally, the idea of good science tends to become confused with the capacity of the field in question to generate an elegant theory. 74) However, the world is so made that elegant systems are in principle unable to deal with some of the world’s more fascinating and delightful aspects. 75) New forms of thought as well as new subjects for thought must arise in the future as they have in the past, giving rise to new standards of elegance.

Section V Writing

76. Directions:


[B] Time limit: 40 minutes

[C] Word limit: 120-150 words (not including the given opening sentence)

[D] Your composition should be based on the OUTLINE below and should start with the given opening sentence: “The desire for good health is universal.”

[E] Your composition should be written neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)


1. Importance of good health

2. Ways to keep fit

3. My own practices


Section I: Structure and Vocabulary (20 points)

Part A (5 points)

1. [A]

2. [C]

3. [D]

4. [B]

5. [D]

6. [C]

7. [D]

8. [B]

9. [A]

10. [C]

Part B (5 points)

11. [A] went

12. [B] psychologically

13. [A] allowing

14. [C] he

15. [B] are more likely

16. [C] are

17. [C] when

18. [B] two spacecraft

19. [D] taken

20. [C] it

Part C (10 points)

21. [D]

22. [B]

23. [D]

24. [C]

25. [A]

26. [B]

27. [D]

28. [B]

29. [A]

30. [C]

31. [D]

32. [A]

33. [C]

34. [D]

35. [C]

36. [B]

37. [D]

38. [B]

39. [A]

40. [D]

Section II: Cloze Test (10 points)

41. [C]

42. [D]

43. [A]

44. [B]

45. [C]

46. [A]

47. [D]

48. [B]

49. [C]

50. [A]

Section III: Reading Comprehension (40 points)

51. [B]

52. [A]

53. [D]

54. [A]

55. [B]

56. [C]

57. [C]

58. [D]

59. [C]

60. [A]

61. [C]

62. [D]

63. [D]

64. [A]

65. [B]

66. [A]

67. [D]

68. [B]

69. [B]

70. [A]

Section IV: English-Chinese Translation (15 points)

71. 在这些原因中,有些完全是自然而然地来自社会需求;另一些则是由于科学在一定程度上自我加速而产生某些特定发展的必然结果。

72. 这种趋势始于第二次世界大战期间,当时一些国家的政府得出结论:政府要向科研机构提出的具体要求通常是无法详尽预见的。

73. 给某些与当前目标无关但将来可能产生影响的科研以支持,看来通常能有效地解决这个问题。

74. 然而,世界就是如此,完美的体系一般而言是无法解决世上某些更加引人入胜的课题的。

75. 同过去一样,将来必然会出现新的思维方式和新的思维对象,给完美以新的标准。

Section V: Writing (15 points)

76. 参考范文


Wherever you are and whatever you do, staying healthy is always important. With the improvement of our living standards, people are attaching more and more importance to their health. We students can’t keep the high study efficiency without good health. The same thing is true with workers, scientists and doctors.

In my opinion, good diet and exercises are two major ways to keep healthy. The food we eat every day must be rational and should include meat, vegetables, eggs, and fruit. It is important to drink water every day and not to get addicted to drinking coffee or some other soft drinks. Exercising every day is also essential for us to stay healthy. We can ride bicycles, play tennis or swim. Of course we don’t need to exhaust ourselves. We should plan our physical exercises according to our actual condition. An hour a day is enough.

As a university student, I have much free time to do exercises. I usually play badminton and tennis. But sometimes I am lazy and do not exercise for all kinds of excuses, such as cold weather and exams. I must correct it. I am also careful with my diet. In a way, keeping healthy is not very hard, if you just take it seriously.

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